Sticking to a plant-based diet could help lower your risk of type 2 diabetes, a new paper suggests.
That link between plant-based eating habits and type 2 diabetes is even more beneficial when only healthy plant-based foods — such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts — are included in your daily diet, as opposed to refined grains, starches and sugars, according to the study, published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine on Monday.
“We found that eating plant-based diets was associated with, on average, 23% reduction in diabetes risk,” said Dr. Qi Sun, an associate professor in the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston and senior author of the paper.
“We further showed that individuals who consumed a healthy version of the plant-based diet by emphasizing the intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, and minimizing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and refined carbohydrates, had a further 30% reduction in their risk of developing type 2 diabetes,” he said. “I would describe these risk reductions as being quite significant.”
Doctors have long known that a healthy diet — along with regular exercise, maintaining a healthy body weight and not smoking — are among the ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
“Indeed, a vegetarian or other plant-based diets that are high in free sugars and refined carbohydrates is likely to increase risk of type 2 diabetes especially when associated with low levels of physical activity,” Tom Sanders, professor emeritus of nutrition and dietetics at King’s College London noted in a written statement distributed by the Science Media Centre in the UK. He was not involved in the new paper.
More than 30 million people in the United States, or about 1 in 10, have diabetes and up to 95% of them have type 2 diabetes, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Globally, diabetes is on the rise — the number of people with diabetes has climbed from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014, according to the World Health Organization.
The new paper involved reviewing nine previously published studies on plant-based eating habits and type 2 diabetes among adults. Those studies included a total of 23,544 cases of type 2 diabetes.
After reviewing the data in those studies, the researchers found that a higher adherence to a plant-based diet was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes — and that was consistent across all age groups and despite a person’s body mass index.
Body mass index, or BMI, is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in meters, and the measurement is used to screen for obesity. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or greater is considered obese.
Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.